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博物馆展览提案的观众调查分析:目的与实践
The Audience Research on Exhibition Topics: Purposes and Practices
沈辰1,2 赵星宇2
Chen Shen1,2 Zhao Xingyu2
(1. 皇家安大略博物馆,加拿大多伦多,M5S 2C5;2. 山东大学历史文化学院,济南,250100)
( 1. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, M5S 2C5;
2. School of History and Culture, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 )

内容提要:近年来,在一些关于博物馆建设发展的论坛上,经常会出现“观众调查结果如何影响博物馆展览提案和策划”的讨论,其中一个重要议题就是:博物馆的策展选题是否该迎合公众喜好?或者说观众在博物馆展览选题过程中该起到什么样的作用?2015-2016年,加拿大皇家安大略博物馆通过观众调查对这一问题做了一次有益的尝试。本文就这一调查的目的、方法、调查数据、最终结论和对实际展览的影响进行了分析探讨,以供业内参考。
关键词:观众调查 展览选题 纹身展 ROM
Abstract: How results of audience research have impacts on decisions of exhibition topics in museums becomes increasingly heated debates, especially forwards a question whether or not a museum should create an exhibition based on public interests alone regardless missions and visions of a museum. The question is in fact related to how public interests has a role in processing of exhibition determination in a museum. During 2015 – 2016, Royal Ontario Museum of Canada (ROM) undertook an experiment on audience research towards a better understanding how public interests in exhibition topics can influence museum’s determination on exhibition presentations. In this paper, we would like to share the results of audience research, with purposes and practices, in order to offer an understanding of how successful it can be when an unconventional exhibition like tattoos are chosen to be shown at the ROM.
Key Words: Audience research; exhibition topic; tattoos exhibit; ROM

 

 

清代丧葬制度研究——火葬到土葬的转变
The Research on Funeral System in Qing Dynasty: The Transformation from Cremation to Inhumation
吴红波
Wu Hongbo
(呼和浩特博物馆,呼和浩特,010021)
( Hohhot Museum, Hohhot, 010021 )

内容提要:丧葬具有狭义和广义之分,前者一般仅指对死者的处理方式,后者指代的内容则相对宽泛,还包含相应的下葬礼俗、祭祀制度、丧服制度等诸多方面。本文所指的丧葬制度研究,仅针对前者即对死者处理方式的研究。在清代,火葬本是满族传统的丧葬习俗,自女真始一直被沿用,久而久之,这一习俗逐渐演变成了被默认的、合理化的具有法律性质的葬法。但满族入主中原后,受满汉文化融合等诸多因素的影响,火葬逐渐被视为不合法的丧葬习俗,并以法制的形式对其进行规范,最终火葬逐渐被土葬所取代。
关键词:清代 丧葬制度 火葬 土葬
Abstract: There are two types about funeral system, one only refers to the treatment about deceased on narrow sense; while broadly speaking, the other one includes customs, sacrificial system, mourning system and other aspects followed by death. This paper only refers to the former one. The people of Manchu had been used to cremating their dead clansman in Qing Dynasty, a custom from Nüzhen. At the beginning, it was just a consuetude, at last it turned into a legal system gradually. However, influenced by the integration of Man - Han culture and other factors, cremation was considered as an illegal custom, and imperial court developed the appropriate regulations about it. Finally, cremation was replaced by inhumation.
Key Words: Qing Dynasty; funeral system; cremation; inhumation

 

 

探考正定开元寺法船殿
Exploration to Fachuan Hall in Kaiyuan Temple at Zhengding
刘友恒1 杜宁2
Liu Youheng1 Du Ning2
(1. 正定县文物保管所,正定,050800;2. 观复博物馆,北京,100015)
( 1. Cultural Relics Peservation Centre of Zhengding, Zhengding, 050800;
2. Guanfu Museum, Beijing, 100015 )

内容提要:开元寺是河北正定这座国家历史文化名城中现存最古老的佛教寺院,为全国重点文物保护单位。至今依然保留着唐代寺院的建筑格局。然而因寺内正殿——法船殿于1966年拆毁后仅存基址,故对其研究关注者甚少。本文通过分析碑文、史料及现存实物,对其历史沿革进行了系统梳理,基本确定了梁思成先生于1933年来正定调查时所见到的法船殿的建筑年代,并对该殿及原供佛像的价值有了更进一步的认识。
关键词:河北正定 开元寺 法船殿基址
Abstract: Kaiyuan Temple is the oldest temple in Zhengding city, Hebei Province. It still remains the layout of Tang Dynasty. Unfortunately, Fachuan Hall, the main hall in the temple, was destroyed in 1966 and only the site of hall base left behind, so few researcher pay attention to the information of this hall. This essay analyses the stele inscription, historical resources and objects remained today, and examines the historical development of Fachuan Hall. The conclusion confirms the dating of Fachuan Hall when Liang Sicheng came to Zhengding in 1933 and shows more details about this hall and the Buddhist statues in it.
Key Words: Zhengding City; Kaiyuan Temple; site of Fachuan Hall Base

 

 

堇鼎保字的书体风格对铜器铭文断代的作用
The Role of Bao Character Style for the Object Dating from Bronze Ding Cauldron on Made for Envoy Jin
张全礼
Zhang Quanli
(首都博物馆,北京,100045)
( Capital Museum, Beijing, 100045 )

内容提要:本文主要回顾青铜器铭文书体研究,从堇鼎铭文中选择了在西周铜器铭文中具有典型性、代表性的字体进行分析,以期为铜器断代研究提供一个科学的、有参考意义的判断标准。
关键词:类型学 铭文书体
Abstract: This essay reviews the study on character style of inscription. Character X is chosen to analyze as it has typicalness and representativeness in Chinese bronze inscriptions. The study on Character X is expected to provide a meaningful reference for the Chinese bronze object dating.
Key Words: Typology; character style of inscription

 

 

关于广东地区博物馆馆刊建设的调查研究
A Survey Study on the Construction of Museum Periodicals in Guangdong Area
温冰
Wen Bing
(中国客家博物馆,梅州,514011)
( Hakka Museum of China, Meizhou, 514011 )

内容提要:馆刊的有无与好坏,已经成为评价博物馆软件水平的重要指标,但大多数博物馆对馆刊的建设工作还不够重视。文章通过对广东地区博物馆的12种馆刊建设情况的调查和分析,发现没有公开刊号、稿源不足、缺乏专业编辑人员等是制约馆刊发展的主要原因,并就广东地区博物馆馆刊几乎都为内刊的特殊情况进行分析,重点对内刊如何突破发展困境作一些初步的探讨。
关键词:博物馆馆刊 刊号 出版周期 稿源 宣传
Abstract: With or without a museum periodical and the periodical’s quality have become an important index to evaluate the level of museum’s software. However, most museums don’t pay enough attention to the construction of museum periodical. Through the investigation and analysis of the construction of 12 museum periodicals in Guangdong area, it is considered that has not periodical number, lack of contribution source and lack of professional editors are the main reasons for restricting the development of museum periodical. Based on the special case that museum periodicals in GuangDong area almost have not periodical number, this article focus on how to break the development dilemma and how to have better development.
Key Words: Museum periodicals; periodical number; publication cycle; contribution source; publicity

 

 

他者之镜与明我:《博物馆教育活动研究》的学术价值
The Other Mirror Attunements Us: The Academic Value of
Research on Education Activities of Museum
徐玲
Xu Ling
(郑州大学考古系,郑州,450000)
( Archaeology Department of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000 )

内容提要:专业论著的出版是博物馆学研究进步的重要标识之一。郑奕博士的《博物馆教育活动研究》,在深入考察欧美博物馆实践的基础上,反观中国博物馆发展现状,是探讨博物馆教育活动的方式方法的一部重要专业著作。
关键词:《博物馆教育活动研究》 博物馆理论 分众化
Abstract: The publication of professional treatise is one of the important signs of the progress of museum studies, Dr. Zheng Yi studies of Research on Education Activities of Museum, based on the practice of European and American museum of the in-depth investigation, in contrast, China's current situations of the development of museum, is to explore the museum as an important professional works of the means of education activities.
Key Words: Research on Education of Activities Museum; museum theory; stratify

 

 

博物馆志愿者工作的指南——《招募与管理志愿者:博物馆志愿者管理手册》
The Guideline of Managing Museum Volunteers: Introduction to Recruiting and Managing Volunteers in Museums: A Handbook of Volunteer Management
刘剑波
Liu Jianbo
(深圳博物馆,深圳,518026)
( Shenzhen Museum, Shenzhen, 518026 )

内容提要:美国是世界上最早出现博物馆志愿者的国家,也是志愿文化最发达的地区。《招募与管理志愿者:博物馆志愿者管理手册》一书从志愿者资源发掘,各类博物馆的不同需求,项目计划制订,志愿者及项目管理,志愿者激励维系五个方面,系统呈现了美国博物馆志愿者工作的先进经验和理念,兼具理论性和实用性,是值得所有博物馆管理者阅读的重要译著。
关键词:博物馆 志愿者工作 指南
Abstract: America has the earliest museum volunteers in the world, and is an area with most thriving volunteer culture. Recruiting and Managing Volunteers in Museums: A Handbook of Volunteer Management elaborated their advanced experience and beliefs of museum volunteer managing through five aspects: recruiting volunteers, different volunteer requirements of different museums, museum project planning, management of volunteers and projects, and volunteer incentives. Moreover, the theories in this book are easy to put into practice. So it is an essential book that every museum administrative staff should read.
Key Words: Museum; volunteer managing; guideline

 

 

博物馆,如何让你的文物活起来
Museum, How to Make Your Cultural Relics Alive?
王金定
Wang Jinding
(烟台市博物馆,烟台,264008)
( Yantai Museum, Yantai, 264008 )

内容提要:博物馆社会教育功能日渐重要,发挥教育功能就是实践习近平总书记提出的“让文物活起来”这一理论。博物馆的文物如何活起来,是如今博物馆工作者普遍思考的问题。馆藏文物的活跃程度彰显着一座博物馆教育职能发挥的好坏。存放于库房中的藏品可以通过一定的手段,比如数据化建设、深挖文物内涵和向社会开放部分库房功能等活起来。展厅文物要通过特色展览策划、科技手段使用、人为因素注入、讲座举办和“双展线”理念应用更大程度地活起来。让文物活起来更离不开文创产品的研发与销售,这已成为激发博物馆活力的新引擎。博物馆宣教活动的策划要体现面向社会的包容性,只有这样才能取得更好的社会效益。
关键词:博物馆藏品 展厅文物 社会教育
Abstract: The social education function of a museum is important, play to the education function is to practice the theory that make cultural relics alive by President Xi Jinping. How to make the cultural relics be alive is the museum staff generally thinking now. The degree of cultural relics activity reveals the functions of a museum education play better or worse. The cultural relics in the warehouse can be alive by these way, such as Database construction, digging the connotation of cultural relics and opening some warehouse functions to the public. The cultural relics in the exhibition hall can be alive by these way, such as planning special exhibition, using methods of science and technology, joining the person’s performance, holding lectures and adding the theory of “two visiting routes”. The development and sales of cultural relics artwork has become a new engine for a museum. The education activities of a museum must really face to the society, in this way, the museum can obtain more social benefits.
Key Words: Museum collection; cultural relics in the exhibition hall; social education

 

 

从“互联网+”探讨博物馆的发展途径——以南京市博物总馆为例
Explore the Development Path of Museum through Internet Plus:
A Case Study of Nanjing Museum Administration
罗小力
Luo Xiaoli
(南京市博物总馆,南京,210000)
( Nanjing Museum Administration, Nanjing, 210000 )

内容提要:中国互联网络信息中心22日发布的第39次《中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》显示,截至2016年12月,我国互联网普及率达到53.2%。随着互联网的日益普及,与互联网有关的产业呈逐渐增多的态势,“互联网+”也成为近年来最热门的词汇。2014年2月, 南京市博物总馆正式成立,其成立的目的是将全市文博单位的藏品和展厅资源整合起来,实现“人才打通”“文物藏品打通”“社会服务打通”的目的,这在江苏省尚属首创。目前,南京市博物总馆运行了两年多的时间。如何利用博物馆资源联合的优势来推动博物馆的持续发展?在互联网时代,“互联网+博物馆”的模式或许是值得我们探讨的模式。
关键词:博物总馆 互联网 发展
Abstract: The 39th Statistic Report on Development of Internet in China issued by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) shows that till December 2016, the Internet penetration rate of China had reached 53.2%. With the rising popularity of the internet, internet related industries are increasing gradually, “Internet plus” has become the most popular words in recent years. Nanjing Museum Administration was formally established on February 2014, which aims at integrating the resources of collection and exhibition to realize the sharing of talents, cultural relics and social service. This is the first practice in Jiangsu province. Nanjing Museum Administration has been running for more than two years. How to take advantage of the resource integration to promote the sustainable development of museum? The “Internet Plus Museum” model may worth exploring.
Key Words: Museum administration; internet; development

 

 

“秦汉文明”展览的策划与实施——兼论在海外策划中国展览和策展人负责制度
From Conception to Completion:
The Organization and Installation of Age of Empires: Chinese Art of the Qin and Han Dynasties
孙志新
Zhixin Sun
(纽约大都会艺术博物馆亚洲艺术部)
( Brooke Russell Astor Curator of Chinese Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art )

内容提要:本文介绍2017年3月27日至7月14日在纽约大都会艺术博物馆举办的“秦汉文明”展览,探讨展览策划和实施中的问题。此外,还简要讨论了美国博物馆策展人制度。
关键词:展览 策划 布展 策展人 博物馆 秦汉
Abstract: This essay introduces the exhibition Age of Empires: Chinese Art of the Qin and Han Dynasties, held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from March 27 through July 14, 2017. It examines some common issues during the exhibition’s planning, production, and installation. In addition, it briefly discusses the curatorial program that is practiced in US museums.
Key Words: Exhibition; organization; installation; curator; museum; Qin and Han Dynasties

 

 

浅析考古类临展的展览策划
——以“五色炫曜——南昌汉代海昏侯国考古成果展”和“王后•母亲•女将——纪念殷墟妇好墓考古发掘四十周年特展”为例
A Brief Discussion on the Planning of Temporary Archaeological Exhibition:
Take the Exhibitions “The Archaeological Excavations at the Royal Cemetery of Haihunhou Kingdom in Han Dynasty” and “40th Anniversary of Excavating the Shang Tomb of Fu Hao” as Examples
杨文英
Yang Wenying
(首都博物馆,北京,100045)
( Capital Museum, Beijing, 100045 )

内容提要:博物馆策划推出的任何一项陈列展览,都需要经历一个由创意构思到最终形成展览成果的复杂过程。展览主题的创意策划与展览内容设计和展览形式设计配合及展览的宣传工作都是最为重要的展览策划环节,本文以海昏侯墓和妇好墓两个考古类型的展览为例,分析阐述了在两个展览办展条件存在很大差异的情况下,如何做到在一个博物馆内,两个同类展览同样精彩,引人入胜。
关键词:海昏侯墓 妇好墓 展览策划
Abstract: All the exhibitions in museum need a process from initial conception to the accomplishment. Theme planning, content writing, form design and the publication of exhibition, all these steps are indispensable for the exhibition planning. This essay takes two examples of archaeological exhibition—“The Archaeological Excavations at the Royal Cemetery of Haihunhou Kingdom in Han Dynasty” and “40th Anniversary of Excavating the Shang Tomb of Fu Hao”—to analyze the topic: on the variant exhibition conditions, how to reach the great level of both two exhibitions in the same museum.
Key Words: Marquis Haihun’s Tomb; Lady Fu Hao’s Tomb; exhibition planning

 

 

光影互动的应用探究——以广东廉洁文物虚拟体验流动展为例
On the Application of Light and Shadow Interaction:
A Case Study of Guangdong Incorruptible Cultural Relics Virtual Exhibition
伍洲
Wu Zhou
(广东省博物馆,广州,510623)
( Guangdong Museum, Guangzhou, 510623 )

内容提要:一个优秀的展览离不开光、影、互动科技的配合和渲染,光影互动在廉洁文物展览中的应用优势也愈加明显。广东廉洁文物虚拟体验流动展将内含廉洁思想的文物与现代化的科技相融合,强调互动参与和个性化的表达,通过立体的陈展语言,让观众更加直观的感受岭南传统廉洁文化的正能量,领悟展览策划的理念。廉洁文物展览作为廉洁文化建设的重要外部助力之一,未来还需要从文物出发,坚持以人为本,突出廉洁文物展览的个性、最终达到以文塑城的目的。
关键词:光影互动 廉洁文物 展览
Abstract: A good exhibition cannot be without light, shadow and interactive technology. The advantage of interaction of light and shadow in the Exhibition of Incorruptible Cultural Relics is obvious. Guangdong Incorruptible Cultural Relics Virtual Exhibition combines cultural relics in terms of honest thoughts with modern science and technology, emphasizing on interactive participating and personalized expression, creating a three-dimensional displaying language for audience, so that the audience more intuitively feel the positive energy of the traditional culture in Lingnan, understanding the concept of exhibition. As one of the important external help for the construction of incorruptible culture, the Exhibition of Incorruptible Cultural Relics should keep on the people-oriented concept based on cultural relics, highlighting the uniqueness of the exhibition in order to governing the city by culture.
Key Words: Light and shadow interaction; incorruptible cultural relics; exhibition

 

 

现代多媒体技术在中国传统书画修复工作中应用实例两则
Two Examples of the Application of Modern Multimedia Technology in Chinese Traditional Restoration Work
李涛
Li Tao
(广东省博物馆,广州,510623)
( Guangdong Museum, Guangzhou, 510623 )

内容提要:为提高书画类藏品修复的准确性和安全性,在以传统工艺为主的修复方法基础上,利用现代多媒体技术作为修复工作的辅助手段,将这门传统工艺与当今多媒体技术进行有机结合。文章以《黄独峰神仙鱼图》、《大清一统天下图》的修复过程作为实际应用案例进行阐述。修复实践表明,对那些揭裱时不易看清正面,又不想进行破坏性修复的书画藏品来说,利用现代多媒体图像编辑、显示功能来辅助修复工作的进行是很好的方法,可以确保文物修复过程中的准确性及安全性,提高文物修复的质量,在书画类藏品修复领域具有较强的实用性,值得推广。
关键词:多媒体 绘图软件 传统书画藏品 修复实例
Abstract: In order to improve the calligraphy and painting collections repair accuracy and safety, in the traditional process based repair method based on using modern multimedia technology as an auxiliary means of repair work, this traditional craft and modern multimedia technology of organic combination. The article to “Dioscorea bulbifera peak angelfish map”, “Great Qing domination map” repair process as a practical application case are presented in this paper. The repair practice show that for those who expose mounted is not easy to see the positive, and do not want to damage repair collection of calligraphy and painting, using modern multimedia image editing, display function to assist in the repair work of to is a very good method, can ensure the restoration of cultural relics in the process accuracy and safety, improve the quality of the restoration of cultural relics. In the field of painting and calligraphy collection repair has a strong practicality, it is worth promoting.
Key Words: Multimedia; drawing software; traditional painting and calligraphy collection; examples

 

 

以个人为支点——浙江省博物馆“漂海闻见”展览回顾
Jiangnan in the Eyes of a Korean Scholar:
A Record of Drifting Across the Sea Exhibition in Zhejiang Museum
王佳月
Wang Jiayue
(北京大学考古文博学院,北京,100871)
( School of Archaeology and Museology of Peking University , Beijing, 100871 )