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青年与新时代中国博物馆
The Youth and the New Era Chinese Museum
刘玉珠
Liu Yuzhu

汉代舞服的考古学研究
Archaeological Study of Han Dynasty Dance Clothes
王    方
Wang Fang
(中国国家博物馆,北京,100006)
(National Museum of China, Beijing, 100006)

内容提要:本文通过对两汉时期舞蹈形象考古材料的系统梳理,以形制、款式及搭配为标准,将汉代的舞蹈服饰分为交领式长服、交领式中长服、对襟式上衣、披风式上衣、连体衣、裸身裤装几个大类。在此基础上重点探讨了汉代舞服的时代特征与区域特点,并就汉代舞服与常服的关系、舞服与舞蹈的关系问题进行理论思考。
关键词:汉代    舞服    舞蹈
Abstract: This paper classifies dancing figures of Han Dynasty, using shape, style and match as standards to divide Han Dynasty dance clothing into several categories, like cross-collar long robe, cloak-like upper clothes, one-piece clothes, etc. On this basis, features of time and region are discussed. Furthermore, relationships of Han Dynasty dance clothes and daily dressing, dancing clothes and dancing are discussed.
Key Words: Han Dynasty; dance clothes; dancing

汉代服饰基本形式的考古学观察
Archaeological Observation on the Basic Forms of Clothing in Han Dynasty
徐    蕊
Xu Rui
(河南博物院,郑州,450002)
( Henan Museum, Zhengzhou, 450002 )

内容提要:本文在系统整理汉代服饰考古资料的基础上,主要利用考古类型学和历史考据研究方法,通过对汉墓遣策中的服装类型记录和形象服饰考古资料的分析,观察总结出汉代服装的基本形式、风格、特点及其发展变化的规律。
关键词:汉代    服装形式    考古学
Abstract: On the basis of systematically sorting out the archaeological data of clothing in the Han Dynasty,this paper summarizes the basic forms, styles, characteristics and the law of evolution and development of clothing in the Han Dynasty, by the research methods of archaeological typology and textual criticism, and through the analysis of the archaeological data of clothing images and historical records in Qiance (funerary objects records written on bamboo slips or wooden tablet buried in tombs).
Key Words: Han Dynasty; costume forms; archaeology

晚唐五代绘画服饰考——丝绸之路带来的中国服饰新风尚
Study of Clothing in Late-Tang and Five-Dynasty Paintings:New Styles Brought by Silk-Road
石钊钊
Shi Zhaozhao
(中国社会科学院考古研究所 北京 100710)
( Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710 )

内容提要:现存晚唐五代时期的绘画材料与出土织物稀有,其中保留的古代人物图像,为研究当时的服饰、装饰、纹样、织造等皆提供了重要实证,因此尤其珍贵。本文依靠出土与传世绘画遗物,尤其是敦煌藏经洞与新疆阿斯塔纳墓地出土的唐代丝织与绘画,对照古代文献记载,以探五代服饰的新风尚。
关键词:晚唐-五代时期    出土绘画    服饰    敦煌藏经洞    阿斯塔纳墓群
Abstract: Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties and Ten-Kingdoms period paintings and silk fabrics were especially rare. They are the evidences about clothing, decoration, grain, weaving, which retain the ancient character image as the study of Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties period. This paper currently researches into substantial paintings for archeology and inherited paintings, such as the library cave at Dunhuang and the Astana ancient tombs in Turpan, and the comparison of ancient literature, in order to study the new fashion of clothing at that time.
Key Words: Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties and Ten-Kingdoms Period; unearthed paintings; clothing; the Library Cave at Dunhuang; the Astana Ancient Tombs in Turpan

鞠衣史论——传统命妇服制的演变与思考
History of Ju Yi: Insight into Development of Clothing System of Ladies with Royally Granted Titles
赵芮禾
Zhao Ruihe
(大葆台西汉墓博物馆,北京,100070)
( Museum of Western Han Tombs at Dabaotai, Beijing, 100070 )

内容提要:本文通过对传统文献与出土实物对比研究,梳理了鞠衣这一贯穿两千多年中国传统礼仪服饰的传承线路,阐述周式鞠衣与汉式鞠衣不同的流传情况。文章将鞠衣按照使用功能和形制在历史上从先秦至明末划分了三个阶段,从不同阶层、不同功用两方面对鞠衣的历史与形制进行考释。
关键词:鞠衣    命妇服制    服饰文化    亲蚕礼
Abstract: By comparing traditional literatures with unearthed artifacts, the author combs the heritage line of Ju Yi, a traditional Chinese ceremonial dress, that has been used for more than 2,000 years. Furthermore,the author elaborates the different circulation status of Zhou-style Ju Yi and Han-style Ju Yi. According to functions and shape system, the article divides the development of Ju Yi into three stages from a historical point of view. From the Pre-Qin period to the end of the Ming Dynasty, the history and the shape system of Ju Yi are studied and explained through classes and functions.
Key Words: Ju Yi; clothing system of ladies with royally granted titles; apparel culture; feeding-silkworm Ceremony

西藏考古发掘出土天珠的蚀花工艺与受沁现象探析
Research on Tibet Unearthed Dzi's Flower Erosion Techniques and Alteration by Burial
巫新华1    哈比布2    罗丹3
Wu Xinhua1 Ha Bibu2 Luo Dan3
(1. 中国社会科学院考古研究所,北京,100710;2. 西藏自治区文物保护研究所,拉萨,850015;3. 西藏自治区札达县文物局,阿里地区,859600)
(1. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710; 2. Tibet Autonomous Region Cultural Relics Institute, Lhasa, 850015; 3. Zanda County Cultural Relics Bureau of Tibet Autonomous Region, Ali Region, 859600)

内容提要:西藏曲踏墓地于2014—2015年考古发掘出土了三颗天珠,本文用“微痕考古”的方法对其进行观察研究,并运用相关科学理论推导出天珠的蚀花工艺。在此基础上,结合专业学者对高古玉器次生变化的研究理论解析这些天珠的受沁现象和发生机理,并提出这些天珠的受沁现象与玉髓的物理化学性状直接相关,且各沁像具有一定规律性的观点。
关键词:天珠    受沁    玉髓    包浆    蚀花    蚀像
Abstract: This paper intends to analyse the three Dzi beads unearthed from Quta Cemetery in Tibet from 2014-2015 by using micro-mark archaeological method, and then to deduce their etching technique using concerned theories. Seeped phenomenon of the beads and their formation mechanism are also analyzed in this paper. It is maintained that the seeped phenomenon of the these beads are directly related with the physical and chemical traits of chalcedony and the seeped phenomenon have certain regularity.
Key Words: Dzi; alteration of jades; chalcedony; padding; flower erosion; etching figure

20世纪以来两周青铜礼器研究综述
Generlization of Zhou Dynasties Ceremonial Bronze Studies after 20th Century
董    睿
Dong Rui
(河南大学艺术学院,开封,475001)
(Art College of Henan University, Kaifeng, 475001)

内容提要:两周青铜器是中国青铜器发展由盛至衰的转型阶段,20世纪以来国内外学者从青铜器分期断代、区系类型、铸造工艺、礼制、器主身份考证等方面入手,取得了较为丰硕的成果;但是推进两周青铜器的研究,仍需从研究对象、研究方法和研究思路方面深入拓展。
关键词:青铜器    中原地区    礼制转型
Abstract: Zhou Dynasty is the turning point of China bronzes history, from prosperity to declination.Since 20th century, scholars from China and worldwide gain academic results in terms of staging, regional differences, techniques, ceremonial meaning, user identity. However, to deeper research Zhou Dynasty bronzes, more work should be done on research objects, methods and ideas.
Key Words: Bronze; middle-land region; changes of ceremonial system

略论汉画像石题记的文化功能与属性
Cultural Function and Features of Han Dynasty Stone Relief Prefatory Remarks
周    绅
Zhou Shen
(南开大学,天津,300350)
(Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350)

内容提要:图文结合是画像石的基本特征之一,在目前发现的画像石中有两百五十余块画像石带有文字刻铭。这些文字刻铭通常被分为榜题和题记,但具体标准并不清晰,多有争论。本文认为可以文化功能作为区分标准,即凡是画像石文字刻铭中用来记录丧礼、宣扬孝行,悼念亡魂、隔离生死的文字可称之为题记,其余则不可,这是较为清晰的划分。画像石题记文化以山东、苏北、皖北、豫东等地最为发达,四川、重庆地区次之,山西、陕西则没能发展起来。画像石题记内容驳杂,受到当时多种文化信仰的影响,通过对比可以看到画像石题记本质上还是以汉代儒家文化为精神内核。
关键词:汉代    画像石    题记
Abstract: The combination of images and texts is one of the basic characteristics of stone reliefs. There are about 250 pieces of stone with inscriptions in the currently found stone reliefs . These inscriptions are usually divided into the announcement topic and the prefatory remarks, but the standard is yet clear, remaining controversial. This article takes the cultural function as the standard of distinction, holding that, words used to record the funeral, to promote filial piety; suspense souls, to isolate life and death are supposed to be the prefatory remarks, the rest is not. The prefatory remarks of stone reliefs is the most developed in portrait stone cultural area (Shandong, northern Jiangsu, northern Anhui, eastern Henan) , less developed in Sichuan and Chongqing, Shanxi and Shaanxi. The prefatory remarks have complex contents, influenced by a variety of cultural beliefs at that time. By contrast, prefatory remarks in Han Dynasty is based on Confucian culture mostly.
Key Words: Han Dynasty; stone relief; prefatory remarks

定窑与定瓷研究札记二则
Two Notes on the Ding Kiln and Ding Porcelain
朱建路
Zhu Jianlu
(邯郸市博物馆,邯郸,056002)
(Handan Museum, Handan, 056002)

内容提要:苏天爵《滋溪文稿?元故朝列大夫开州尹董公神道碑铭并序》中相关内容是有关元代定窑的重要史料,为以往陶瓷史家所忽略。据此分析,元代定窑并没有断烧,且仍每年向皇宫进贡。宋金分立后,南方定瓷因难得而珍贵;北方定窑在金代之后也衰落,因而史籍中更鲜见记载。但医典中定瓷末入药的记载增多,这与宋金之后定瓷产量减少,日益珍贵有关。
关键词:元代    定窑    定瓷    中药
Abstract: The Shinto inscriptions of Dong Shiliang, which was included in Zixiwengao (滋溪文稿), Volume Ⅻ, is important to research the history of Ding Kiln in the Yuan Dynasty. But it was ignored by scholars. We can analysis that the production of Ding Kiln did not stop in the Yuan Dynasty, and Ding Kiln was still a tribute to the Royal Palace annual. After the separation of Song and Jin, the Ding Kiln porcelain were rare and precious in the southern. Ding kilns declined after the Jin Dynasty in the northern, therefore, they were more rarely recorded in historical records. However, the records of the Ding Kiln porcelain powder as a kind of drug increased, which was related to the decline of Ding Kiln porcelain production and more precious after Song and Jin.
Key Words: Yuan Dynasty; Ding Kiln; the Ding Kiln porcelain; Chinese medicine

作坊•酒幌•神主及其他——荷首莲趺式装饰纹样应用举隅
Workshop, Liquor Signboard, Memorial Tablet and Others: Application Examples of the Lotus Pattern with a Leaf at the Top and a Flower at the Base
王志霞1    杨建军2
Wang Zhixia1 Yang Jianjun2
(1国家文物出境鉴定河南站,郑州,450000    2郑州博物馆,郑州,450000)
(1. National Cultural Relics Exit Identification Henan Station, Zhengzhou, 450000;
2. Zhengzhou Museum, Zhengzhou, 450000)

内容提要:莲荷是中国装饰艺术上最为流行的植物装饰纹样之一。本文以“格式化”特征明显的荷首莲趺式纹样为研究对象,通过大量实例的列举分析,揭示出这一纹样应用于商业标记、丧葬礼仪、经籍装帧、寺庙道观供器、帝王卤簿等领域的多维性特点。同时,文中还对“荷首莲趺式”纹样产生源头及其与佛教的关系进行了探讨。
关键词:荷首莲趺    装饰纹样    应用
Abstract: Lotus is one of the most popular plant patterns in Chinese decorative art. In this paper, lotus patterns ( a leaf at the top and a flower at the base ) are used for research because of their symbolized features. The example analyses indicate that it appeared in the fields of commercial mark and funeral system and book design and oblation and royal etiquette. Meanwhile, the origin of lotus pattern is discussed in this paper and there is a close relationship between it and Buddhism.
Key Words: Lotus pattern with a leaf at the top and a flower at the base; decorative pattern; application

图画中的妈祖文化与海上丝绸之路
——中国国家博物馆藏《天后圣母事迹图志册》研究
Matsu Culture and the Maritime Silk-Road in the Picture:
the Research of the Album of Goddess Matsu's Story in the National Museum of China
吕伟涛
Lv Weitao
(中国国家博物馆,北京,100006)
(National Museum of China, Beijing, 100006)

内容提要:中国国家博物馆藏《天后圣母事迹图志册》以绘画的形式描绘了妈祖的生平事迹,再现其昭然天地的丰功伟绩,以及民间和朝廷对于妈祖的虔诚崇拜和褒奖敕封。全册以图为主,每帧副页再配以文字说明,这种图文并茂的形式生动而详实,对于研究妈祖文化与海上丝绸之路有着重要的学术价值。
关键词:《天后圣母事迹图志册》? 妈祖文化? 海上丝绸之路
Abstract: The album of Goddess Matsu's story is one of the National Museum of China's collections.It describes Goddess Matsu's life story in the form of paintings, also her extraordinary contribution reappeared.Both folk and authority worship Matsu piously and give praise to her. The whole volume is mainly composed of pictures, and each page is accompanied by a written explanation. The illustrations are vivid and detailed. It is academically valuable for the study of Matsu Culture and the Maritime Silk-Road.
Key Words: The album of Goddess Matsu's story; Matsu culture; the Maritime Silk-Road

大房山连泉禅寺与普光寺之关系考
Research on the Relationship between Dafang Mountain
Lianquan Temple and Puguang Temple
马    垒
Ma Lei
(门头沟区文物事业管理所,北京,102300)
(Mentougou District Cultural Relics Office, Beijing, 102300)

内容提要:本文通过对大房山下新发现的元代因公塔幢幢文的考证,证实普光寺属连泉禅寺下院。文曰:“晚归连泉重振道场十有余年”,又牵涉出大房山连泉禅寺的兴衰史,再一次印证了大房山是一座名副其实的京畿佛教名山。
关键词:大房山    连泉禅寺    普光寺
Abstract: This paper, through the research of the newly discovered Yuan Dynasty official pagoda under Dafang mountain, confirms that Puguang temple belongs to the lower house of Lianquan temple. The text said, “it took more than ten years to return to Lianquan when he was old to revitalize the Taoist temple”, which also involved history of Lianquan temple in Dafang mountain, which once again proved that Dafang mountain is a veritable famous capital city buddhist mountain.
Key Words: Dafang mountain; Lianquan temple; Puguang temple

展览叙事与物的意义
——以“湖南人——三湘历史文化陈列”为例
Exhibition Storytelling and Meaning of Object: from Theoretical Disscussion to the Example of Hunanese——exhibition of Human History and Culture
王思渝
Wang Siyu
(北京大学考古文博学院,北京,100871)
(School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871)

内容提要:从博物馆常设展览的叙事模式出发,提出物的意义不应完全局限在长时段、线性发展式的单一叙事框架内。以此为基础,在对相关理论做出讨论的基础上,以“湖南人——三湘历史文化陈列”为例,试图寻求展览叙事在时间和社会维度上做出平衡的可能性。
关键词:展览叙事    物    时间线    社会维度

Abstract: From museum permanent exhibition, this paper holds that, the meaning of objects should not be framed in time-line storytelling. Based on this point, this paper studies related theories and takes Hunanese——exhibition of Hunan History and Culture as an example, making efforts to find a possibility to balance time-line and social scope in exhibition.
Key Words: Exhibition narrative; object; time-line; social scope

博物馆教育与学校教育互动融合中美比较研究
——以肯尼迪图书馆和钱学森图书馆为例
Comparative Study of Interaction between Museum Education and School Education: Taking the JFK Presidential Library and Qian Xuesen Library as Examples
茅艳雯
Mao Yanwen
(上海交通大学钱学森图书馆,上海,200030)
(Qian Xuesen Library & Museum of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai,200030)

内容提要:青少年是当代博物馆最重要的观众群体。相比学校课堂,博物馆更为开放、情景重现式的空间和以欣赏、体验、探究为主的学习过程,使其成为学校教育之外最重要与最适合的青少年课程资源和教育场所。随着终身教育理念的普及和博物馆教育职能的凸显,博物馆应明确其辅助青少年正规学校教育的定位,主动对接探索与大中小学校教育体系相衔接的博物馆课程教育资源体系建设。本文选取美国肯尼迪图书馆与上海交通大学钱学森图书馆课程开发与实施的案例进行比较研究,可以对我国博物馆教育在未来如何与学校教育互动融合提供借鉴。
关键词:博物馆教育    学校教育    中美比较
Abstract:Teenagers are the most important audience of contemporary museums. Compared with school classroom, museum has not only a more open and reproducible space but also a learning process based on appreciation, experience and exploration, which makes museum the most important and suitable off-campus curriculum resources and education places outside the school education. With the popularization of the concept of lifelong education and the prominence of museum’s educational function, the museum should be clear about its position of education in the secondary school and should actively explore to construct the museum education resource system, which is connected with the education system of primary and middle schools. This paper makes a comparative study of museum course development of The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum and Qian Xuesen Library & Museum of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and then gives advice of how our museum education interacts with school education in the future.
Key Words:Museum education; school education; comparison between China and USA

从中小学生研学旅行看馆校合作
To see the cooperation between schools and museums from the Research-oriented Trips of Primary and secondary school students
何东蕾
He Donglei
(四川博物院,成都,610000)
(Sichuan Museum, Chengdu, 610000)

内容提要:2016年11月,教育部等11部门联合印发了《关于推进中小学生研学旅行的意见》,该文件的出台引起了教育界、文博界广泛的关注。长期以来,博物馆与学校在接触和合作中遇到许多现实的问题,让馆校合作浅尝辄止。当下,中小学生的研学旅行再次把博物馆和学校紧密地联系在了一起,给了博物馆与学校双方一次加深了解,优势互补的机会。文章通过研究当下有关中小学生研学旅行的政策环境与社会需求,并结合博物馆与学校各自资源优势,尤其从博物馆的资源环境出发,探索博物馆如何助力中小学生更好地开展研学旅行,加深馆校合作的深度和广度。
关键词:馆校合作    博物馆    研学旅行
Abstract: In Nov. 2016, the ministry of education and 11 other departments jointly issued Opinions on the Promotion of Research-oriented Trips for Primary and Secondary School Students, which attracted extensive attention from the educational and cultural circles. For a long time, the contact and cooperation between the museum and the school have encountered many practical problems, which make the cooperation stay in a superficial level and can not be deepen. At present, the research-oriented trips for primary and secondary School Students once again closely connects the museum and the school, giving a chance to them to deepen understanding and complement each other's advantages. This paper studies the current policy environment and social needs of research-oriented trips, and explores how museums can help primary and secondary school students to better carry out their trips and deepen the depth and breadth of cooperation between museums and schools, especially from the resource environment of museums.
Key Words: Cooperation between schools and museums; museum; research-oriented trips policy

BBC博物馆题材纪录片初探
An Analysis of Museum Documentaries Produced by BBC
冯喆颖
Feng Zheying
(中国国家博物馆,北京,100006)
(National Museum of China, Beijing, 100006)

内容提要:作为世界顶尖的纪录片生产机构之一,英国广播公司在人文领域的纪录片制作方面硕果累累。本文以BBC制作的博物馆题材纪录片为研究主体,从发展趋势、类型划分等方面进行分析梳理,以期为国内同类制作与文化传播提供有益借鉴。
关键词:博物馆    纪录片    英国广播公司
Abstract: As one of the world's leading documentary production institutions, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has made great achievements in humanistic documentary production. This essay takes the museum documentaries produced by BBC as the main research subjects, and tries to analyze and figure out the development and the general categories of these documentaries, hoping to be available for reference to domestic documentary production and culture promotion.
Key Words: Museum; documentary; British Broadcasting Corporation

论博物馆学术研究在原创展览策划中的应用
Discussion on the Application of Museum Academic Research in Original Exhibition Planning
蔡 杰
Cai Jie
(河南博物院,郑州,450002)
(Henan Museum, Zhengzhou, 450002)

内容提要:随着博物馆事业的不断发展,各类展览推出的频率不断加快,以学术研究为基础的原创临时展览,已经成为博物馆基本陈列以外的重要组成。如何认识学术研究在博物馆展览中的优势,做好原创展览的策划,是我们亟待讨论和解决的问题之一,也是实现博物馆教育、研究、传播诸多功能的基础。总之,博物馆原创展览的策划应当注重展览的学术研究定位,充分利用其优势,发挥博物馆的研究功能,将博物馆学术研究成果应用和融入社会公众需求的大范围内,这是博物馆原创展览策划创新的关键。
关键词:博物馆    学术研究    原创展览策划
Abstract: With the continuous development of the museum, the frequency of various exhibitions has been accelerated, and original exhibitions based on academic research have become an important part of the museum's basic exhibition. How to recognize the advantages of academic research in museum exhibitions and to plan the original exhibitions is one of the issues that we need to discuss and solve, and it is also the basis for realizing many functions of museum education, research and communication. In short, the planning of the original exhibition of the museum should focus on the academic research orientation of the exhibition, make full use of the advantages of its academic research, give full play to the museum's largest research function, and apply and integrate the academic research results of the museum into the wide range of public needs. It is the key to the original exhibition planning innovation of the museum.
Key Words: Museum; academic research; original exhibition planning

试论天津近代火车站遗址的保护与传承
Preservation and Inheritance of Tianjin's Modern Train Stations
刘尊志 廖 琳 李楚玉 李梦凡 李会会
Liu Zunzhi Liao Lin Li Chuyu Li Mengfan Li Huihui
(南开大学考古学与博物馆学系,天津,300350)
(Department of Archaeology and Museology, NanKai University, Tianjin, 300350)

内容提要:天津作为中国北方第一个开埠通商的口岸和华北铁路网的枢纽城市,在近代涌现出了大量设计优秀、价值颇高的火车站建筑。天津主要火车站遗址在保护等级、保存现状、使用情况等方面都存在着差异。考察天津近代火车站遗址保护与利用过程中成功的经验与存在的问题,有针对性地提出天津近代火车站遗址保护与发展的建议,以及未来发展的规划,对天津近代铁路文化遗产的保护与传承有一定的意义。
关键词:天津地区    火车站遗址    铁路文化遗产
Abstract: As the first port in northern China and the hub city of north China railway network, Tianjin has a large number of railway stations, which are of excellent design and high value. The main railway stations of Tianjin are different in protection level, status quo of preservation and usage condition. This paper researched the experiences and problems in the process of protection and utilization of Tianjin railway stations sites, and put forward some suggestions on the protection and future development of them.
Key Words: Tianjin; railway station site; railway cultural heritage