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地方性或全国性:新中国成立初期地志博物馆宗旨变迁
Local or National: The Research on the Transformation of
Chorography Museum in the Early Period of New China
赵慧君
Zhao Huijun
(郑州大学考古系,郑州,450000)
( Department of Archaeology of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000 )

内容提要:新中国成立初期是国内博物馆以苏联为师、大力学习苏联博物馆经验的特殊阶段。在地志博物馆引进和实践的过程中,受苏联地志博物馆宗旨变化的影响,20世纪50年代早期和中期中国相应修正了地志博物馆的宗旨,早期强调地方性,到中期则开始提出地方性与全国性并重。作为早期试点的山东省博物馆,因侧重于地方性,在20世纪50年代中期受到业界批评。而在具体的博物馆陈列中如何处理全国性与地方性之间的关系,更是引起了学界的广泛讨论。
关键词:新中国成立初期 地志博物馆 博物馆史
Abstract: In the initial stage of new China, the Chinese museum field learned from the Soviet Union experience actively. In the early 1950s, the experience of the Soviet chorography museum introduced by China emphasized on the locality. And the Shandong Province Museum, which was selected as the experimental unit, mostly absorbed and replicated the spirits and principles. In the mid-1950s, the concern of Soviet Union museums turned to focus on both locality and nationality, and this shift profoundly affected the development of Chinese museums. The Shandong Province Museum was criticized because it emphasized on locality too much. And the relationship between the locality and nationality in the museum display has become a focus, which influences the development of the Chinese museums profoundly.
Key Words: The early of new China; chorography museum; museum history

 

 

博物馆学习的媒介:试论儿童展览阐释中的表达方式
Museum Learning Media: Analysis on the Means of Expressions of Children’s Exhibitions
周婧景
Zhou Jingjing
(复旦大学文物与博物馆学系,上海,200433)
( Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 )

内容提要:近来年我国博物馆纷纷开设儿童专区,或为儿童策划临时展览,然而,这类展览虽人满为患,却大都不尽人意,多有诟病。因此,提升儿童展览的质量和水平势在必行,而表达方式的科学选用一直是制约儿童展览质量提升的一大难题。本文通过国内外大量案例的考察与分析,归纳出儿童展览阐释中用于参与的体验设计、用于参与的探索设计、用于感知的符号设计和用于观察的视觉设计四种表达方式,并对四种表达方式的特征进行了反思。
关键词:儿童展览 阐释 参与、探索、体验 表达方式
Abstract: In recent years, museums in our country are established as special zones for kids or used for holding temporary exhibitions for kids. Although they are not large in quantity, the exhibitions enjoy tremendous popularity once launched. Therefore, it’s imperative to improve the quality and level of children’s exhibitions. However, scientific selection concerning means of expressions has become an obstacle restraining the improvement of the quality of children’s exhibitions. This essay summed up in four means of expressions concerning children’s exhibitions including experience design for participation, exploration design for participation, symbol design for perception and visual design for insight. Then further reflected on the features of four means of expressions and conclude in several proposals concerning the expressions of children’s exhibitions.
Key Words: Children’s exhibitions; explanation; participation, exploration, experience; means of expressions

 

 

四川博物院藏“蜀石经”残石碑文考
The Research on Remnant Inscription of “Shu Stone Scripture”
Collected in Sichuan Museum
雷玲
Lei Ling
(四川博物院,成都,100029)
( Sichuan Museum, Chengdu, 100029 )

内容提要:蜀石经是我国古代镌刻的七种影响较大的儒家石经之一,因其经注并刻、体例严整、字体精谨的特点,长期备受学者青睐;但它镌刻规模之大,耗时之长、佚亡之突然,也一直是学者们研究的课题。本文结合文献和学者们的研究成果,拟对四川博物院收藏的蜀石经残石所存文字进行辑录、考证,希望有助于推动相关研究的深入。
关键词:蜀石经 碑文 现状 文献
Abstract: As one of the seven major Confucianism stone scriptures in ancient China, “Shu Stone Scripture” has been paid great attention by scholars for its coexistence of text and notes, neat style and fine script. It left scholars many issues, such as long-term and big-scaled carving and sudden disappearance. Based on the documentaries and published results, the paper compiles and researches the remnant inscription of “Shu Stone Scripture” collected in Sichuan Museum and will be helpful for the research.
Key Words: Shu Stone Scripture; inscription; present situation; documentary

 

 

时大彬与明代紫砂
Shi Dabin and Purple Clay Wares of Ming Dynasty
叶倩1 胡传耸2
Ye Qian1 Hu Chuansong2
(1.北京国文信文物保护有限公司,北京,100029;2. 北京市文物研究所,北京,100009)
( 1.Beijing Guo Wen Xin Cultural Relics Protection Co.Ltd., Beijing, 100029; 2. Beijing Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Beijing, 100009 )

内容提要:时大彬是明代中晚期宜兴紫砂壶成熟的标志性人物。多年来,不少学者就时大彬的生卒年、陶艺成就、作品真伪等问题进行了相关探讨。本文尝试分析了明代文献中时大彬和大彬壶的相关记载,探讨了时大彬壶艺生涯的起迄,进而概括明代紫砂器的社会、文化功能。
关键词:时大彬 紫砂 《书时大彬事》 《瓦壶记》
Abstract: Shi Dabin is a symbol of Yixing purple clay teapot. Scholars have been discussing about his dates, ceramic achievements and authenticity of his works for years.This article analyzes the documentations of Ming Dynasty about Shi Dabin and his purple clay teapot, discusses the beginning and the end of his career as a purple clay artist, then generalizes the social and cultural functions of the purple clay wares of Ming Dynasty.
Key Words: Shi Dabin; purple clay wares; Records of the Stories of Shidabin; Wahuji (Earthern Pot records)

 

 

博物院志愿者管理工作初探——四川博物院工作实践
A Preliminary Study about the Management of Volunteers in the Museum:
The Practice of Sichuan Museum
郑小萍 周瑾璇
Zheng Xiaoping Zhou Jinxuan
(四川博物院,成都,610071)
( Sichuan Museum, Chengdu, 610071 )

内容提要:博物馆免费开放政策的出台,让志愿服务迅速发展获得契机,志愿者在博物馆中的价值日益显现,志愿服务可以有效地补充博物馆的社会教育工作,志愿者还成为了连接博物馆与公众的纽带。博物馆的发展离不开志愿者,但博物馆志愿者的管理工作机制却缺乏相应的发展。如何更好地建设博物馆志愿者队伍,发挥博物馆教育职能,成为博物馆工作不可回避的问题。目前,国内外博物馆志愿者工作的发展有着明显差异,国内博物馆存在着志愿者人数少、流失现象严重、培训不足、管理不专业等问题,针对这些问题,本文以四川博物院为例,对志愿者管理工作进行了初步探索。
关键词:博物馆 博物馆志愿者 志愿者管理
Abstract: With the formulate of the museum free open policy, volunteerism grows rapidly in China. The value of volunteers is becoming more and more prominent in the museum, they can not only effectively supplement the museum social education functions, but also became a bridge between the museum and the public. The development of the museum is inseparable from the volunteers, is run largely on the strength of the volunteers, but the management mechanism of museum volunteer is lack of corresponding development. How to better construct the museum volunteer team and play the educational function of the museum is the question that every museum staff should think about. At present, there are obvious differences in the development of volunteer work between domestic and overseas museums. There are some problems in the volunteer team of domestic museums, such as the short of volunteers, the seriousness of brain drain, lack of training, unprofessional of management. In view of these problems, this essay takes the Sichuan Museum as an example to carry on the initial exploration to the volunteer management.
Key Words: Museum; museum volunteer; volunteer management

 

 

参与型博物馆建设探微——以云南民族博物馆为例
The Reflection of Constructing an Engaging Museum:
Taking Yunnan Nationalities Museum as an Example
黄滢丹
Huang Yingdan
(云南民族博物馆,昆明,650228)
( Yunnan Nationalities Museum, Kunming, 650228 )

内容提要:随着科技进步和社会发展,博物馆不仅是收藏、保护、研究和展示文化遗产的机构,还是服务人的全面发展、面向未来的文化服务和教育机构。21世纪的博物馆由收藏型转变为参与型。在建设参与型博物馆的过程中,可以从哪些方面增强博物馆的参与性,让公众真正参与到博物馆建设中,本文以云南民族博物馆为例,结合工作实际提出一些思考。
关键词:博物馆 参与 建馆宗旨 展览 教育活动 数字化
Abstract: With the development of science technology and society, museum is not only an organization which focuses on collection, preservation, research and display, but also an educational institution which serves the public and shares the cultural resources for all. How to construct an engaging museum? It is important for museum staffs to think about. The paper will give some reflection with the Yunnan Nationalities Museum as a case.
Key Words: Museum; engage; mission; exhibition; educational activity

 

 

当博物馆遇到奢侈品——馆牌合作的模式、争论与根源之刍议
When Museums Encounter Luxury Goods:
The Mode, Argument and Origin of Museum Brand Cooperation
秦晴
Qin Qing
(金沙遗址博物馆,成都,610000)
( Jinsha Site Museum, Chengdu, 610000 )

内容提要:博物馆历来被视为人类文明的最高境界,记录着这个时代里最能代表真实和权威的证据。但越来越多的奢侈品牌执意于塑造高于商品使用价值之外的艺术价值,纷纷进入博物馆营销时代。纵观国内外,各类博物馆甚至包括历史类博物馆,已然成为奢侈品营销战略里的一环,由此引发争议。在这场馆牌合作的演出里,双方扮演着什么样的角色?为人诟病的原因何在?如何在一个开放的时代里,实现公益性文化机构与商业性奢侈品牌之间的互利双赢?这些正是本文试图探讨的问题所在。
关键词:博物馆 奢侈品 营销
Abstract: As the ultimate standard of civilization, museum represents the authenticity and authority in the era of reproduction. However, more and more museums, even world-class historical museums have been involved into marketing strategy by luxury brands with the aim of attaching higher value to their products. This kind of “Museum Marketing” has aroused widely arguments. In order to find a way to accomplish the harmony among art, history and commerce and achieve the win-win between public culture organization and commercial institution, this article lists the typical example of cooperation between museum and luxury brands, while discussing the conflicts that might force museum to cede its mission.
Key Words: Museum; luxury brands; marketing

 

 

三维打印技术在文物修复保护中的应用
The Application of 3D Printing Technology in Artifact Restoration and Conservation
史宁昌1 曲亮1 高飞1 税午阳2,3
Shi Ningchang1 Qu Liang1 Gao Fei1 Shui Wuyang2,3
(1. 故宫博物院,北京,100009;2. 北京师范大学信息科学与技术学院,北京,100875;3. 文化遗产数字化保护与虚拟现实北京市重点实验室,北京,100875)
( 1. The Palace Museum, Beijing, 100009; 2. College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875; 3. Beijing Key Laboratory of Cultural Heritage Digital Protection and Virtual Reality, Beijing, 100875 )

内容提要:本文主要探讨了三维打印技术在文物保护领域应用中涉及的技术和方法。首先介绍了三维打印技术的工作原理和在文物保护领域应用中的技术流程。然后分别以文物仿制、文物碎片拼接和残缺文物修复三个典型应用为例,对利用三维扫描和3D打印技术开展文物保护的实际应用作了初步探讨。最后对三维打印技术在文物保护应用中的不足和注意事项进行了分析。
关键词:三维打印 文物仿制 文物修复
Abstract: This paper introduces 3D printing method and technology which can be applied in the field of artifact conservation. Firstly, the working principle of 3D printing is introduced and the technology framework of 3D printing is proposed as well. Then, this paper turns its focus on three cases of artifact reproduction, fracture artifacts reassembling and broken artifact restoration and presents the artifact conservation by combining 3D scanning and 3D printing. Finally, the defaults of artifact conservation by 3D printing are analyzed and the requirements of 3D model processing are presented.
Key Words: 3D printing; artifact reproduction; artifact restoration