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专题介绍:中国古代服饰研究

编者按:
        衣食住行是人类物质生活的基本要素,衣作为人类文明的标志物之一,除基本功能外,还有装饰、审美及辅助相关活动等作用,故多称之为服饰。服饰与日常乃至整个社会生活关系密切,内涵极为丰富,既反映出个体的需求,又体现出强大的社会功能,如礼仪、等级、制度、习俗风尚、生产生活、文化交流、民族融合等。服饰以其自身内涵和特点,为我们展现出古代物质文明、精神文明及相关社会内容的发展和演进。
        本专题刊发了四篇与古代服饰有关的文章。《汉代舞服的考古学研究》在分类的基础上探讨了汉代舞服的时代特征与区域特点,指出汉代舞服的变化和款式特点是在顺应汉代俗舞的多样化、在常服款式的基础上改造修饰而形成的;《汉代服饰基本形式的考古学观察》总结出汉代服装的风格、特点及其发展变化规律,主要表现在约束减弱和自由度的增强;《晚唐五代绘画服饰考》一文以出土的唐代织物与绘画为研究对象,结合文献等资料,论述了晚唐五代时期女装与男装的变化,阐述了这一时期由丝绸之路带来的中国服饰新风尚;《鞠衣史论》一文系统梳理了古代鞠衣的发展,并将其分为三个阶段,根据阶层、功用等探讨了传统命妇服制的演变。四篇文章从不同的角度论述了古代服饰发展过程中的一些具体内容,为我们认识古代服饰提供了很好的借鉴和参考。

汉代舞服的考古学研究
Archaeological Study of Han Dynasty Dance Clothes
王    方
Wang Fang
(中国国家博物馆,北京,100006)
(National Museum of China, Beijing, 100006)

内容提要:本文通过对两汉时期舞蹈形象考古材料的系统梳理,以形制、款式及搭配为标准,将汉代的舞蹈服饰分为交领式长服、交领式中长服、对襟式上衣、披风式上衣、连体衣、裸身裤装几个大类。在此基础上重点探讨了汉代舞服的时代特征与区域特点,并就汉代舞服与常服的关系、舞服与舞蹈的关系问题进行理论思考。
关键词:汉代    舞服    舞蹈
Abstract: This paper classifies dancing figures of Han Dynasty, using shape, style and match as standards to divide Han Dynasty dance clothing into several categories, like cross-collar long robe, cloak-like upper clothes, one-piece clothes, etc. On this basis, features of time and region are discussed. Furthermore, relationships of Han Dynasty dance clothes and daily dressing, dancing clothes and dancing are discussed.
Key Words: Han Dynasty; dance clothes; dancing

汉代服饰基本形式的考古学观察
Archaeological Observation on the Basic Forms of Clothing in Han Dynasty
徐    蕊
Xu Rui
(河南博物院,郑州,450002)
( Henan Museum, Zhengzhou, 450002 )

内容提要:本文在系统整理汉代服饰考古资料的基础上,主要利用考古类型学和历史考据研究方法,通过对汉墓遣策中的服装类型记录和形象服饰考古资料的分析,观察总结出汉代服装的基本形式、风格、特点及其发展变化的规律。
关键词:汉代    服装形式    考古学
Abstract: On the basis of systematically sorting out the archaeological data of clothing in the Han Dynasty,this paper summarizes the basic forms, styles, characteristics and the law of evolution and development of clothing in the Han Dynasty, by the research methods of archaeological typology and textual criticism, and through the analysis of the archaeological data of clothing images and historical records in Qiance (funerary objects records written on bamboo slips or wooden tablet buried in tombs).
Key Words: Han Dynasty; costume forms; archaeology

晚唐五代绘画服饰考——丝绸之路带来的中国服饰新风尚
Study of Clothing in Late-Tang and Five-Dynasty Paintings:New Styles Brought by Silk-Road
石钊钊
Shi Zhaozhao
(中国社会科学院考古研究所 北京 100710)
( Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710 )

内容提要:现存晚唐五代时期的绘画材料与出土织物稀有,其中保留的古代人物图像,为研究当时的服饰、装饰、纹样、织造等皆提供了重要实证,因此尤其珍贵。本文依靠出土与传世绘画遗物,尤其是敦煌藏经洞与新疆阿斯塔纳墓地出土的唐代丝织与绘画,对照古代文献记载,以探五代服饰的新风尚。
关键词:晚唐-五代时期    出土绘画    服饰    敦煌藏经洞    阿斯塔纳墓群
Abstract: Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties and Ten-Kingdoms period paintings and silk fabrics were especially rare. They are the evidences about clothing, decoration, grain, weaving, which retain the ancient character image as the study of Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties period. This paper currently researches into substantial paintings for archeology and inherited paintings, such as the library cave at Dunhuang and the Astana ancient tombs in Turpan, and the comparison of ancient literature, in order to study the new fashion of clothing at that time.
Key Words: Late-Tang and Five-Dynasties and Ten-Kingdoms Period; unearthed paintings; clothing; the Library Cave at Dunhuang; the Astana Ancient Tombs in Turpan

鞠衣史论——传统命妇服制的演变与思考
History of Ju Yi: Insight into Development of Clothing System of Ladies with Royally Granted Titles
赵芮禾
Zhao Ruihe
(大葆台西汉墓博物馆,北京,100070)
( Museum of Western Han Tombs at Dabaotai, Beijing, 100070 )

内容提要:本文通过对传统文献与出土实物对比研究,梳理了鞠衣这一贯穿两千多年中国传统礼仪服饰的传承线路,阐述周式鞠衣与汉式鞠衣不同的流传情况。文章将鞠衣按照使用功能和形制在历史上从先秦至明末划分了三个阶段,从不同阶层、不同功用两方面对鞠衣的历史与形制进行考释。
关键词:鞠衣    命妇服制    服饰文化    亲蚕礼
Abstract: By comparing traditional literatures with unearthed artifacts, the author combs the heritage line of Ju Yi, a traditional Chinese ceremonial dress, that has been used for more than 2,000 years. Furthermore,the author elaborates the different circulation status of Zhou-style Ju Yi and Han-style Ju Yi. According to functions and shape system, the article divides the development of Ju Yi into three stages from a historical point of view. From the Pre-Qin period to the end of the Ming Dynasty, the history and the shape system of Ju Yi are studied and explained through classes and functions.
Key Words: Ju Yi; clothing system of ladies with royally granted titles; apparel culture; feeding-silkworm Ceremony