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人类学视野下的博物馆收藏、展示与诠释

 

编者按:

        曾有学者说,“博物馆是人类学家无法离开的田野”,本期专题内容——人类学视野下的博物馆收藏、展示与诠释——就是针对博物馆与人类学的关系来展开的。尹凯、史明立、马萍与潘守永等学者的论文从人类学和民族学的视角对当今中国博物馆的理论与实践进行了反思,思考了“人”(博物馆观众、社会公众、博物馆工作者)在博物馆中的地位,探索了公众参与博物馆的方式,以及博物馆如何直面冲突,更好地发挥其社会职能。王雅豪的论文则探索了民族博物馆中的民族藏品的征集与使用:当民族藏品脱离了它的原生环境来到博物馆时,如何向公众传达少数民族知识,并唤起少数民族群体的身份认同?

        如果说以上几位学者是从宏观上论述了人类学与博物馆的关系,庾华与陈斯亮,刘俊军与金露,梁小燕等学者的论文则通过一个个鲜活的案例,向读者展示了人类学和民族学在博物馆实践中的重要作用,无论是传统博物馆的建设实践,还是生态博物馆等新型博物馆的建设与研究,民族学和人类学都发挥着不可或缺的作用。

        编者期待通过对本期选题文章的分享,人类学与民族学在博物馆中得到更加广泛的应用和实践。

 

 

 

“从物到人”:一种博物馆观念的反思
From Object-oriented to People-oriented: A Reflection on the Museum Idea
尹凯
Yin Kai
(山东大学文化遗产研究院,济南,250100)
( Institute of Cultural Heritage, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 )

内容提要:当代博物馆学界存在一个共识性的命题,即强调公众在博物馆理论与实务中的优先性,以消解长久以来物件的主导地位。在国内,该观念衍生出诸如“从物到人”“以人为本”“观众导向”等一系列有关博物馆价值重置的话语表述。曾经处于相对失语状态的公众成为国内学界竞相关注与书写的热点,集中体现在公共服务、策展理念、学习体验、居民参与等研究议题上。本文认为,“从物到人”的观念远非将关注的重点由博物馆物件转向博物馆公众那么简单,更重要的是还应包括隐藏在物件背后的个人与群体,甚至还包括博物馆专业人员。从博物馆哲学层面来看,“从物到人”的观念旨在从以证据(物件)为导向、强调实证与秩序的博物馆迷思中走出来,迈入以合作(人)为主导、强调人文与关系的博物馆新视界。
关键词:从物到人 博物馆 物件 公众 关系
Abstract: There is a consensus among the contemporary museum academic circles, which emphasizes the priority of public in both museum theory and practice aspects in order to work through the dominant position of object for long. Thus, this idea derives a series of discourse expressions about the museum transform, such as “from object-oriented to people-oriented”, “people-oriented”, “visitor-centered”. For a while, visitor or public is becoming a hot spot of academic interest and writing, which is embodied in the research issues, such as public service, display idea, learning experience, community participation. This paper argues that the concept “from object-oriented to people-oriented” is far from the focus from the museum objects to the public in museums, what’s more important is the individuals and groups behind the museum objects, even the museum professionals are no exception. That is to say, the idea of “from object-oriented to people-oriented” should be understood as a transformation: from the museum myth which emphasizes evidence (objects), empirical study and order, to a new museum horizon which focuses cooperation (people), relationship and humanity.
Key Words: From object-oriented to people-oriented; museum; object; people; relationship

 

谁的博物馆?——博物馆与公众参与
To Whom does Museum Belong: Museums and Public Participation
史明立
Shi Mingli
(西汉南越王博物馆,广州,510040)
( Museum of the Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou, 510040 )

内容提要:博物馆是谁的博物馆?博物馆为谁发声?公众在博物馆中又扮演什么角色?本文从博物馆公众体验的参与方式中跳脱出来,将博物馆视为一个“建构认同和知识,表达意见与协商的空间”,从珠三角地区公众自身的展览实践出发,探讨政府、博物馆、社会组织、社区和个人在记录某一特定群体、某一特定事件中扮演的角色,关注不同群体在表达、阐释和构建某一团体或事件的历史中的作用及博物馆如何真正成为建构认同和表达意见的场所,旨在从更深层次上分析“博物馆的公众参与”问题。
关键词:博物馆 公众参与 群体 表达
Abstract: Who has the right to interpret exhibitions at museums? For whom do museums speak? What role does the public play in a museum? Instead of discussing various types of activities that visitors take part in museums, in this article, museums are regarded as a place where different groups express their views respectively, lead to a common identity and new knowledge. From this perspective, taking the exhibitions at the museums located in the pearl river delta region as examples, this article analyzes different roles that governments, museums, social organizations, communities and individuals play in displaying and interpreting exhibitions, through which museums record the information of a particular group or a particular event, and shows how important various groups express, interpret and create the historic records of a group or an event. In the long run the only real access to “public participation” is to construct a place in which groups exchange ideas and form a strong sense of common identity, which is also a possible way to lead to a deeper analysis of “public participation” at Chinese museums.
Key Words: Museums; public participation; groups; interpretation

 

博物馆:如何面对敏感话题?
Museums: How to Deal with Sensitive Topics?
马萍 潘守永
Ma Ping Pan Shouyong
(中央民族大学民族学与社会学学院,北京,100081)
( School of Ethnology and Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081 )

内容提要:2017年的博物馆日主题不仅代表了博物馆叙述、表征范围的扩大,同时,也标志了博物馆社会职能的拓展。在面对敏感话题时,由于不同利益群体对于记忆的竞争与争夺,博物馆往往从促进交流与合作的“接触地带”演变成各种矛盾经验回荡的“冲突地带”。通过对英国阿尔斯特博物馆“战争展”和加拿大战争博物馆“第二次世界大战展”两个展览的探讨,本文旨在展示博物馆“接触地带”的多重面向,并进一步思考在面对难以言说的历史时,博物馆如何以更加恰当的方式介入,以减少冲突,并更好地发挥其社会职能。
关键词:接触地带 敏感主题 社会职能 冲突地带
Abstract: When it comes to sensitive and difficult topics, museums can easily turn from being as a contact zone to a conflict zone. This article aims to explore the multiple aspects of museums as a “contact zone” by discussing the “Troubles Gallery” in Ulster Museum and “the Second World War Gallery” in Canadian War Museum. Furthermore, this article will reflect on how museums can be involved in difficult and sensitive history in a much more appropriate way and how to achieve its social role in a better way.
Key Words: Contact zone; sensitive topic; social role; conflict zone

 

民族博物馆中民族藏品的现代表达
The Contemporary Expression of Ethnographic Collections in Ethnographic Museums
王雅豪
Wang Yahao
(莱斯特大学,英国,LE17RH)
( The School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, UK, LE17RH )

内容提要:民族博物馆承担着展示少数民族故事和少数民族历史的责任,尤其应值得重视的是藏品背后的民族知识、情感、集体记忆和其民族文化的现代生存与表现方式。在现代语境下,民族博物馆面临着如何重新认知并阐释藏品,重新书写少数民族的历史并展示他们的现在,赋予民族藏品新的文化意义和生命的挑战。但对民族藏品的现代阐释不应完全脱离其原始语境及意义,而是在此基础上唤醒其在当代社会中的重要性。并且,由于非物质文化遗产作为民族藏品的文化知识和深层精神情感的表达方式,对于民族藏品的现代表达,需要将其与活态的非物质文化遗产联系起来,向公众传递其过去与现在的意义,并展现出少数民族文化的延续性与创新性。
关键词:民族藏品 现代表达 民族博物馆 非物质文化遗产
Abstract: Ethnographic museums present ethnic minority cultures and history. Hence, they are supposed to pay more attention on ethnic minorities’ cultural knowledge, emotion, collective memory and the contemporary expression of ethnic minority cultures that emanate from ethnographic collections. In the contemporary context, ethnographic museums attempt to rethink the representation of ethnographic collections and present the close link between their past and present, which endows ethnographic collections with new cultural meanings. Yet, the contemporary interpretation of ethnographic collections cannot be isolated from their original contexts and meanings. Moreover, intangible cultural heritage is recognised as the expression of the cultural knowledge and collective memory. The contemporary expression of ethnographic collections is supposed to closely link to the dynamic intangible cultural heritage. Under this assumption, ethnographic museums are able to transmit cultural meaning embedded in the past and the present of ethnic minority cultures in order to show the continuity and recreation of ethnic minority cultures.
Key Words: Ethnographic collections; contemporary expression; ethnographic museums; intangible cultural heritage

 

数字化时代民族地区博物馆的文化遗产展示和人类学解读
——以西藏工布江达县秀巴古碉楼群遗址为例
Exhibition and Anthropological Interpretation of Cultural Heritage in the Minority Regions in the Digital Era: A Case Study of Xiu-ba Watchtowers Construction
庾华1 陈斯亮2
Yu Hwa1 Chen Siliang2
(1. 中南民族大学民族学与社会学学院,武汉,430074;
2. 长安大学建筑学院建筑历史研究所,西安,710061)
( 1. School of Ethnology and Sociology, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074;
2. Research Institution of Architectural History, School of Architecture, Chang’an University, Xi’an, 710061 )

内容提要:少数民族地区的文化遗产因其独特属性和突出价值而成为发展民族地区博物馆的重要资源,展示和解读少数民族地区的文化遗产成为民族地区博物馆不可推卸的社会责任。数字信息技术的快速发展给文化遗产的展示提供了更多的选择,人类学家的研究也为少数民族地区文化遗产的解读提供了更多的视角。本文以西藏工布江达县秀巴碉楼群遗址为例,就民族地区的文化遗产展示和人类学解读提出粗浅看法,请方家指正。
关键词:民族地区 博物馆 文化遗产展示 人类学解读
Abstract: Museums in minority regions bear compelling responsibility and obligation in exhibiting and interpreting the cultural heritages which are one of most important resources because of its unique attributes and standout value. The rapid development of digital technology has given more different choices not only in the exhibition method of cultural heritage, but also from the perspectives how anthropologists interpreting. The paper is a case study of Xiu-ba Watchtowers Construction, through which, we discussed about the exhibition and anthropological interpretation of cultural heritage in minority regions in the digital era.
Key Words: Minority regions; museum; exhibition of cultural heritage; anthropological interpretation

 

生态博物馆与遗产旅游的人类学研究
——以贵州镇山布依族生态博物馆为例
An Anthropological Study on Ecomuseums and Heritage Tourism:
Taking Zhenshan Buyi Ecomuseum in Guizhou as an Example
刘俊军 金露
Liu Junjun Jin Lu
(宁波大学,宁波,315211)
( Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 )

内容提要:生态博物馆是20世纪70年代产生的新博物馆学概念,生态博物馆强调生态、居民和文化的整体性,在特定情境下同时肩负着保护生态和发展经济的双重责任。我国的生态博物馆实践至今已有20余年,其地理范围和建设形式均在扩展和革新。本文以镇山布依族生态博物馆为研究个案,分析在全球化及大众旅游的背景下,村落内文化遗产的保护状况及其呈现出的变迁,同时阐释生态博物馆模式及理念对文化遗产保护与开发的借鉴作用。
关键词:生态博物馆 遗产保护 旅游开发 镇山村
Abstract: The ecomuseum is a new concept of museology from 1970s, which focuses on the integrity of environment, inhabitants and culture. In certain situation, it has responsibility for both ecological preservation and economic development. The practice of ecomuseums in China has a history of more than 20 years and the region and forms of ecomuseums has innovated. This paper takes Zhenshan Buyi Ecomuseum in Guizhou as a case study, analyses the preservation and changes of culture heritages within, and interprets the reference of ecomuseum theories and forms to the preservation and exploration of culture heritages.
Key Words: Ecomuseum; preservation of heritage; tourism development; Zhenshan

 

广西民族志影展的定位与发展
Function Orientation and Development Policy in Guangxi Ethnographic Film Festival
梁小燕
Liang Xiaoyan
(广西民族博物馆,南宁,530028)
( Guangxi Anthropology Museum, Nanning, 530028 )

内容提要:当代“民族志”概念的拓展催生了以影像作为田野工作方法而日益具备“独立人格”标识的影视人类学体系,在此基础上,国内众多影展应运而生,为这些新兴的民族志成果提供了不同于文本交流的平台。广西民族志影展是中国大陆首例以“博物馆”为主体筹办的民族志影展,作为一种重要且必要的尝试,广西民族志影展的发展以持续十数年的“1+10”广西民族生态博物馆群项目和“文化记忆工程”项目为坚实基石,有效服务于传统博物馆“收藏、保护、研究、展示”四大职能并予以强化和扩充,因此从一开始就确立了发展重点在于扶持村民影像和保持实验的性质。广西民族志影展与电视媒体、独立电影力量,以及高校等科研机构所获资源不同,所遇困境有异,基于博物馆身份和角色的特殊性,它的自我定位和发展规划中,必然以“如何坚持民族志表述”为根本,其效度和信度更多地来源于“主位视角”的“深描”,由此,影展策划中如何紧抓“乡村影像单元”和“新锐影像单元”以实践上述定位,应当成为广西民族志影展未来进程中的高优先级重点事项。
关键词:民族志 影视人类学 博物馆
Abstract: Nowadays a great deal of film festivals has been born as a result of ethnographic conceptual extensions. Guangxi Ethnographic Film Festival based on previous practices named Guangxi Ecomuseums Project and Cultures Recording Project, has enriched and extended exhibition methods and techniques as the first ethnographic film festival operated by museum in Mainland China. Guangxi Ethnographic Film Festival should stand on Thick Description through Emic narrative perspective, then development objectives could be achieved. The point is how might they be implemented, and this paper answers with focuses on next steps policy to local groups ethnographic training and supporting.
Key Words: Ethnographic; visual anthropology; museum